After the pap test, the most common cytological analysis in the world is urine test. Urinary cytology is in fact an increasing diagnostic reality, second only to the cervico-vaginal cytology.
However, the lack of standardised guidelines for urinary cytology reporting increases the confusion surrounding this type of examination.
The reporting standard in this field is provided by the TPS (The Paris System), a working group that has developed a standardised reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphological criteria for a reliable diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. However, this reporting system, which follows the guidelines of The Paris System, is not yet widely used.